Central Processing Unit (CPU)


Central Processing Unit (CPU) – CPU is considered as the brain of the Computer. It is also called a microprocessor. It is the fastest and costly unit of the computer system. All major calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU. CPU Converts all the supplied input into the required output as per the instructions supplied by the user. The performance and the speed of the computer mainly depend upon the type of microprocessor installed in it. 

Central Processing Unit (CPU) 

With CPU, there exists a temporary storage location known as registers. These are used for storage of smaller data up to 64 bits. Registers are being used for faster data supply to the processor for processing. The number, size, and capacity of the register in a CPU can affect the processing power.

The CPU further contains Two Units 

Control Unit

  • A control unit is a major component of the computer which helps in the functioning of the central processing unit and in turn, runs the whole computer.
  • The control unit works as a supervisor of the monitor in the system. it supervises or controls all the activities of various functional units of the computer. 
  • It fetches transfers the required instructions from the main memory, interprets them and then send them to ALU for processing. 
  • It controls the execution of an instruction in a sequential order. 
  • It works as a central nervous system of the computer it controls the flow of data to and from the main memory. 
  • It sends and receives control signals from various peripheral devices.
  • It ensures that data reaches the correct place at the correct time. 

ALU (Arithmetic & Logical Unit) 

  • The function of ALU is to perform the actual calculations on the computer. It performs arithmetic (addition, Subtraction, multiplication, & division) and logical (Comparison or decisions) Calculations in the computer. 
  • In some Computer processors, the ALU is divided into two distinct parts, the AU And LU. The AU performs the arithmetic operations and the LU performs the logical operations. 
  • ALU has internally two temporary registers into which the incoming data from memory is loaded and then operated.

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